The heart provides your entire body with blood containing oxygen and nutrients and will also provide the removal of metabolic waste. The heart exists of 2 main parts, which is the left and right of the heart. Each side has 2 chambers through which blood is flowed and directed the required sections. Each of these chambers have valves, which are there to prevent blood from flowing in the wrong direction or back-flow. There are 2 upper chambers (one on each side) that are referred to as atria or atrium chambers, the same can be found at the bottom of the heart, which is known as ventricles.
When the heart beats blood, which is low in oxygen returning from the systemic circulation system will enter the atrium on the right. Here it will be pumped out through the ventricle on the right and be passed through the lungs to obtain oxygen, while giving off carbon dioxide. The oxygen enriched blood is then passed through the lift atrium and pumped to the aorta to be circularized. Additionally the blood obtains nutrients from the liver to supply other parts of the body. Veins in the body will return blood to the heart where arteries will transport blood away from the heart and supply the body. Veins provide less pressure than the arteries as the heart pumps the blood through the arteries. The heart beats roughly 72 times per minute and will speed up in the case of running, excitement and so on. People who are over weight or unfit will experience a faster heart beat, which puts more strain on the organ. These patients are also more likely to have a higher cholesterol count, which increases the risk of arteries being blocked and heart attacks taking place.
The heart is positioned behind the breast bone in the centre at the same level as T5 – T8 of the thoracic vertebrae. The left side of the heart is stronger as it supplies the body, this is also why the heart beat can be felt more on the left. Due to this the left lung is is small its turns as it accommodates a larger part of the heart.
The heart consists of 4 values that are there to prevent blood flowing in the wrong direction. A tricuspid valve is a located to the right between the ventricle and atrium. The tricuspid consists of 3 flaps that connected to chordae tendinae, better known as tendous cords or heart strings. The opening and closing of these flaps are controlled by papillary muscle, which can be found extended from the ventricular surface. In the left side of the heart the mitral valve is seen. This valve has 2 flaps that are controlled by the ventricular wall. These values are also these to assist with the direction of blood flow.
Cardiac cycle refers to the beating and relaxation of the heart. When the atria contracts and receives blood the ventricles relax, which is also known as a cardiac cycle. Systole is when the heart is pumping blood out of the ventricles to supply the body with oxygen enriched blood. Diastole is known as the period when the heart experiences relaxation while the chambers are refilled with blood. Both ventricle and atrium chambers experience diastole and systole. Regulating these components carefully is very important to ensure blood is pumped through the body.