There are many reasons for a heart attack to take place. There are also symptoms that people can look out for to either get help for themselves or get help for a person suffering from these symptoms. Heart attacks are usually presented with a sharp chest pain several minutes before, patients will also feel a tingling sensation or pain through the left arm, shoulder, neck, lower jaw, upper abdomen and even the right arm. However, not all heart attacks provide these symptoms, in fact a third of all heart attacks happen with no warning whatsoever, these are called silent IM’s (Myocardial infarction).
A shortness of breath, excessive sweating, light headed, weakness, nausea, palpitations and vomiting could be experienced when damage to the left ventricle is caused, this means blood flow exiting the heart is limited and will not be able to supply other organs in the body with the right amount of oxygen and blood. Losing conscious, going into cardiogenic shock or sudden death can occur in IM and is caused by an insufficient amount of blood being provided to the brain.
Myocardial or acute myocardial infarction, also known as IM, AIM or most commonly known as a heart attack will occur when the heart does not receive enough blood containing oxygen due to a blockage. The heart muscle will be damaged due to this event. The blood supply to the heart can be stopped by a clog of white blood cells, unstable build up, fat or cholesterol in the coronary arteries. When this takes place and its sudden and serious its called AIM (acute), which means it differs from cardiac arrest.
A person experiencing an AIM usually feels very sudden chest pains along with the other symptoms mentioned above. Women may have less of these symptoms and will feels fatigue and indigestion instead. These can also happen silently as explained, which means no symptoms are provided, with IM cases as much as 64% of these cases are silent and happen suddenly.
The highest risks for heart attacks include smoking, certain lipids, cocaine abuse, high blood pressure, diabetes, lack of physical activity, chronic kidney disease, alcohol abuse, obesity and amphetamines. There are 2 main methods used to determine the damages caused by these events. The most common is ECG (electrocardiograms), which is used to trace blood for substances that can be associated with damage to the heart. Should additional testing be required a ST elevation MI will be used. This test higher than the baseline, this will usually require a much higher treatment level and will be used more aggressively.
Aspirin can usually be used to treat a patient with suspected IM, this is because it thins the blood, which will result in the risk of additional clotting of blood, nitroglycerin or oxygen can be used to treat chest pains. ST elevations are treated by restoring blood flow to the heart. This is usually done by pushing the arteries open by force. None STEMI situations can usually be treated by medication. Multiple blocked arteries will be treated with bypass surgery. This surgery will also be used on patients suffering from diabetes.